National Science Review...

Pulmonary Diseases Induced By Ambient Ultrafine And Engineered Nanoparticles In Twenty-first Century

PM, stands for "particulate matter"
particulate matter means Ultrafine Particles (UFPs), and Nano-Particles (NPs) 

Convincing evidence has established the association between PM (particulate matter) and many pulmonary diseases thatcontribute to early mortality and reduced life expectancy. However, for ambient UFPs (Ultrafine Particles) and NPs  (Nano-Particles), although much progress has been made in understanding their toxicological effects and mechanismsof toxicity, there are still many knowledge gaps ontheir impact on human health. In this review, we have summarized recent major findings on cellular, animal and human research with a focus on the respiratory effects and mechanisms of toxicity induced by PM , UFPs and NPs. Available evidence strongly suggests that UFPs and NPs may be more potent in causing adverse health effects in humans because of their high deposition rate in the alveolar region, impaired clearance by alveolar macrophages and higher surface reactivity, pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory effects than their larger counterparts.Thus, it is imperative to focus future research on the health effects of nano-scale pollutants so that preventive strategies and regulatory guidelines can be developed to reduce exposure and improve human health.

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